Welcome to Computer Spreadsheets
What is a Spreadsheet?
A large table, which contains
individual cells that hold data.
Spreadsheets are commonly used to carry
apply specific formulas;
chart the data;
assist the decision-making process.
What are the desired outputs?
What are the required inputs?
How is the data positioned?
What mathematical expressions are used?
Who will be using the spreadsheet?
Type in a question into the Auto Wizard
Search the Index for a help topic
Use the Tip Wizard
Worksheet vs. Workbook
Cell Address and Cell Reference
Formula Wizard box
Control + Home
Control + End
The term worksheet is used
interchangeably with the term spreadsheet. A workbook consists of
several worksheets. What you see on the screen is one of the up to
255 worksheets in your current workbook. A single worksheet contains16,384 rows
and 256 columns. An Excel file contains one workbook.
Creating a New Workbook
To create a new workbook, simply click
on the New Workbook Button in the upper left corner of the screen.
Every time you open Excel, a blank
workbook will be opened by default.
To move along the screen use either:
the arrow keys or
the scrollbars, by dragging their
small gray rectangles.
To move between worksheets, click on
the respective tab on the bottom of the screen.
Selecting Cells and
To select a cell, simply click
A block is a set of adjacent
cells. To select a block, click in one of its corners and drag with the mouse
until the black rectangle covers your whole block. To select a set of nonadjacent
blocks, select the blocks one by one, holding the Ctrl key all the
To do anything with a block or cell,
you first need to select it.
Name the worksheet
Activate cell, type (shows in formula
Use the Form on the Data Menu (Enter
name, subject, school for practice--use form as well)
Double click to activate cell for entry
of information directly (see what looks like in cell)
Inserting Data Into the
In Excel 97, there are two ways to
insert data into a cell:
double-click the cell and start
select the cell (by a single click),
click in the Formula Bar and start typing.
In either case, press Enter when
The first method is faster but the
arrow keys do not always work properly with it.
If you made an undesired change to a
cell, press Esc instead of Enter. If you already pressed Enter,
press Ctrl + Z to undo the change.
To delete a cell or a block, select the
cell or the block and press the Delete key.
Click on the cell and edit in the
Double-click on the cell and edit
within the cell
Deleting cell information (click on
cell and choose Edit, Clear or click on cell and press the Delete key)
Start typing a repeat of a name to see
Click on Tools, Options, Edit, Enable
Pick from list (Rt. Click on cell and
Have to select cells if you want to
make changes at all
Click many cells by first clicking on
the first cell, hold down shift key and click at end of the list
To select a continuous range, hold down
Click on headings to select entire
Use AutoFill to complete days of the
Create formula--begin with = sign
Do not enter numbers, enter cell
A cell address is the row
and column in which the cell is located. For example, cell A10 is the cell in
column A and row 10. A block address is defined in a similar way. For
example, A10:D12 refers to the block with upper left corner A10 and lower right
Excel allows you to enter a formula
such as A10 + A11*A12 into a cell. The content of this cell will be adjusted
automatically as the value of A10, A11, or A12 changes.
There are several ways to enter a
Type into the cell : =A10 + A11*A12
and press Enter. Instead of typing the address of a cell, you can simply
click on the cell.
To sum up a row or a column of a table
(not the whole row or column in the worksheet):
select the cell below the table
column or the cell to the right of the table row;
press the Sum Button Þ
You can accept the cells that Excel
selects or select your own by clicking on the first cell and moving to the last
Sometime you may need to fill in a
sequence of cells in some systematic way, such us:
January, February, March, …
Part 1, Part 2, …
Bla-bla 1, Bla-bla 2, Bla-bla 3, ….
In this case, fill in the first cell Þ
drag the lower right corner of the cell to fill the rest.
You can also speed fill a cell with a
formula by dragging the lower right corner of the cell. The formula itself will
be adjusted in the new cells.
To find a peace of data in your
workbook, simply use Edit Þ
To find and replace a piece of data, go
to Edit Þ Replace.
Copy the Formula
Many ways to copy a cell’s contents
Edit Copy, Edit Paste
Catch box in lower right (+) get
cross hair for mouse pointer
Drag mouse downward to copy formula or cell
Control + C (copy), Control + V
Copying and Moving Data
To copy a block, select it and press
the Copy Button.
To paste a block, place the cursor in
the upper left corner of the new location and press the Paste Button.
To move a block, select it and drag one
of its edges (wait for the big arrow to appear).
Normal vs. Fixed
When you speed fill a formula, you may
want to fix some cells within the formula.
In both cases, you may use fixed
addresses. The F4 key changes the address type.
Saving a Workbook
To save your workbook, simply press the
Save Button. If you have not assigned a name to your workbook yet, Excel
will ask you to do so.
Later on, you can make a copy of your
workbook and save it under a different name. To do that, go to File Þ
Save As Þ
Type the new name Þ
Closing, Opening and
Deleting a Workbook
To close a workbook, click the Close
Button in the upper right corner. If there are unsaved changes, Excel will
ask you if you want to save them.
To open an existing file, click on the Open
double-click the icon of the
To delete a file, click on the Open
Right-click the file Þ
Worksheets are most often used to
analyze numeric data. However, proper formatting can add professionalism and
readability to your results.
Excel allows you to make your worksheet
as fancy as your eyes can carry! Do not allow, however, formatting to become an
addiction, consuming most of your time.
Since worksheet users most often work
with tables, Excel offers a rich repertoire of automatic table formats. To apply
such a format:
Select the table Þ
Choose a format Þ
Formatting Row Height
and Column Width
To adjust the size of a column (or
row), place the cursor on the border of the column (or row) heading.. Then drag
Excel can adjust automatically the size
of particular columns (or rows):
Select the columns (or rows) Þ
Column (or Row) Þ
AutoFit Selection (or AutoFit).
Excel offers a generous list of formats
which you can apply to a cell or a block.
Select the cell (or the block) and
choose Format Þ
A box with six sections
From there, you can specify the number
and date format, the alignment of the text, the font color and type, the border
A style is a combination of cell
formatting options (fonts, colors, borders, patterns, alignment, etc.).
To define a style of your own, use:
Type a name for the style Þ
Specify the components of the style Þ
OK Þ OK.
To apply a style to a block, select the
block and use Format Þ
In addition to formatting, Excel
allows the users to add and create true art in their worksheets.
Although, worksheets are used mostly
to analyze numeric data, graphics can be a well-deserved treat for everybody
using the worksheet.
To get started, add the Drawing toolbar:
Mark Drawing (if not marked already) Þ
A bunch of drawing buttons will appear on the screen.
You can use the rectangle, oval,
line, and arrow buttons to create a simple picture. Click on the
respective button and then click where the shape must appear.
Use these tips to edit any
object in Excel:
drag its borders to adjust its size;
drag the whole object (wait until the
cursor becomes a four-headed arrow);
use the buttons on the Drawing
toolbar to specify a fill-in color; the color, type, and width of the border;
the shadow and 3-D effects.
Using Excel’s Art
Few users have enough time to create
their own art. Fortunately, Excel offer a large accessory of pre-made art:
- several very fancy title fonts. To apply, click on the WordArt
- more than 100 common shapes (banners, special arrows, stars, etc.). To apply
use the AutoShapes button.
- pre-made pictures, sound effects, photos, and videos. To apply, go to Insert
Clip Art. If you insert the
Office 97 disk, more objects will appear (not all are installed from the disk
to save memory).
Inserting an Object
From a File
If you have an image or sound saved in
a file, you can easily insert them into the spreadsheet:
From File Þ
Double-click the name of the file.
Organize your data into a table with
meaningful row and column headings.
Select the whole table with the
Click on the Chart Wizard Button.
Specify the chart type and press Finish.
Your chart is ready.
Instead of pressing Finish, you
could keep on pressing Next to add some extra attributes to your chart:
In the second box, specify which data
goes to which axis.
In the third box, specify the titles,
the position of the legend, the thickness of the gridlines, etc.
The forth box asks you whether you
want the chart placed on a separate worksheet.
By far the most important decision in
creating a chart is to select the right chart type. Almost any table can be
plotted by almost any chart type. However, not each chart type will give you the
Formatting a Chart
Excel allows you to change your initial
decisions about the chart at any time. Excel also offers many additional
A chart consists of several main
components: title, X-axis, Y-axis, legend, chart area, plot area, and data
series (e.g., the lines or the rectangles in the chart).
To edit a component, click on it to
select it and then right-click it.
In the small box that appears, the
first option is Format… If you select it, you will be able to change
any of the formatting options available for this component.
Printing is the most trivial task to
most users - press the Print button and go get your printout. This will
print your entire worksheet.
With worksheets, however, you may want
to add a few quick steps to the printing process to make your printout look more
Of course, printing your spreadsheet
can be as easy as pressing the Print button. You can, however,
gain more control if you go to File Þ
From the box that appears, you can:
Change the printer.
Print multiple copies.
Print only a pre-selected block.
Hiding the Gridlines
Many users dislike gridlines on a
printout (those ugly cells around your table or chart).
To hide the gridlines in your
worksheet, go to Tools Þ
View and unmark Gridlines.
To hide the gridlines only in your
printout, go to File Þ
Page Setup Þ
Sheet and unmark Gridlines.
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