Early America’s Bloodiest Battle
On September 17, 1791 Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair headed north from what
now Cincinnati, Ohio to establish a fort at the head of the
Anthony Wayne was one of the most colorful Commanders-in-Chief of the
army of the United States. Some have acclaimed him as the first
native-born military genius, whose greatness as an organizer of troops
and military affairs is only now beginning to be recognized. Due to his
brilliant exploits during the American Revolution, he was regarded as a
military hero in his own time, but his greatest achievement came after
Following the American Revolution, the Native American peoples of the
Midwest were increasingly pushed from their homelands by white
settlement. Two ill-fated U.S. military expeditions, led by Generals
Josiah Harmar (1790) and Arthur St. Clair (1791), were defeated by a
confederation of Native American tribes led by Michikinikwa (Litte
Turtle) of the Miami.
History of the Cherokee
Relations between the US and Native
The Period of American Domination
The year 1795 can be regarded as an important turning point in
Indian affairs in the northwest. Though peace with England was established
in 1783, the war with their Indian allies was not to be concluded as
easily. The difficulty in securing peace was perhaps due to a new factor
in the complex relations with Indians on the frontier.
The Creek were originally one of the dominant tribes in the mid-south
and later became known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Thomas Jefferson's views of American Indians were formed not just in the
peaceful study at Monticello and in the halls of the American
Philosophical Society. They were also fashioned on horseback, in taverns, and
in legislative chambers by a close observer of the almost endless war, diplomacy and treaty-making
that accompanied Virginia's, and later the United States', efforts to
obtain the lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, whose foothills lay
in a hazy blue line in western Albemarle County.